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Level: Junior, Middle School
Grades: 3-8 | Age: 8-14yrs | Written by: Lauren Geggus [Lauren is an art instructor]

Making an art form using processes and techniques influenced by those of different artists can help one to better understand how to create a landscape.

Incorporating one's own personalized designs and marks provides the opportunity for individual expression.

Learning about the roles of the artists and crafts people in the context of a process helps one to better understand the contribution of artists to a landscape.

Artmaking Processes and Techniques:

wax resist (crayons and tempera)

Art Elements/Principles of Design:

color, shape, form, space, and balance


As a result of this unit, students will:






Students should demonstrate a willingness to learn about landscapes by positively contributing to the discussion at least once during the lesson.





examples, reproductions, books

Student Pre-requisite:

painting experience

Instructional Methods:

What You Need:
What You Do:


Procedure (Teacher Directed)

  1. Set Induction "How are these landscapes different from one another?"
  2. Show examples from various artists (Cézanne, Monet, O'Keeffe, Renoir, etc) and have students identify the foreground, middleground, and background.
  3. Do artists have an individual style that makes them unique?


Procedure (Teacher Directed):

  1. Explain that their drawing must include a horizon line, foreground, middleground, and background.
  2. Demonstrate the crayon wax resist by drawing the composition, and adding in paint to an area.
  3. Crayons must be used first and paint next! Outline the drawing with crayon and fill it in with tempera.
  4. Go over color mixing to produce tones and secondary colors.

(Guided Practice) Students will:

  1. Trace a drawing space using 9x15" tag board, in order to create a border.
  2. Design a pattern on the border (optional).
  3. Add a horizon line first.
  4. Use crayon to outline their foreground, middleground, and background.

(Teacher Directed)

  1. Use a different color of paint for each layer (foreground, middleground, background) in the landscape.
(Independent Practice) Students will:
  1. Use tempera to add in large areas of color to their outlined drawing.


(Teacher Directed): Students will ….

  1. Does a landscape need to look realistic to be considered art?
  1. How did we create space in our landscape?
  2. What were some artists that we discussed today?
  3. How did you display foreground, middleground, and background?


Craven, W. (1994). American Art: History and Culture. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Hobbs, J. and R. Salome. (1995). The Visual Experience Worcester, MA: Davis Publications.

Recommended Books/Products:

Watercolor Paper, 11x17

Watercolor Paper, 11" x 17", 80lb. (pk/100)

11" x 17" sheets of fine-grained, off-white watercolor paper. Ideal for dry brush work and light washes. Also works well with markers and other paint. 100 sheets. 80-lb weight.

Extra-White Sulphite Drawing Paper, 12x18

Extra-White Sulphite Drawing Paper, 12"x18", 60lb. (pk/500)

Extra-White Sulphite Drawing Paper. Good-quality, versatile white drawing paper that is suitable for all media. Slightly textured with good erasing qualities. 60-pound, 500-sheet ream. 12" x 18".

128-oz. Color Splash Liquid Tempera Paint - Set A (pk/4)

128-oz. Color Splash Liquid Tempera Paint - Set A (pk/4)

Our top-quality Color Splash liquid tempera paint is now available in convenient gallon-size 4-packs complete with 4 FREE PAINT PUMPS! Non-toxic. One gallon each of 4 colors: white, red, yellow and blue.

Bristle Brush Assortment Pack (pk/72), White

Bristle Brush Assortment Pack (pk/72), White

Shed-proof, round and flat brushes. 12 each of sizes 1, 3 and 5 round and 2, 4 and 6 flat. Features natural wood handles, tapered bristles and seamless, rustproof ferrules. Perfect for arts, crafts and hobbies. These brushes come in a pack of 72 and you can choose either white or black bristles.

My Very Favorite Art Book: I Love to Paint!
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The Science Book of Color
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This book explains the principles of color and gives instructions for a variety of simple experiments.

My First Paint Book
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